Coastal Systems


 

No:

002

Title

Big Data to Improve Global Water

Organizers

Suresh Kumar
VIT University, India

Abstract

Big Data is transforming agriculture, and just in time. The demand for food is expected to double by 2050 as the world's population heads toward 9 billion people and increasing incomes allow many more to afford a better diet. Lack of water is a critical constraint to increasing food production, particularly as droughts and other consequences of climate change are making water scarcer.
To help solve this enormous challenge, the agriculture and water communities are harnessing Big Data to ramp up food production with less pressure on our water resources. With that in mind, here are eight ways Big Data is helping to create a more water- and food-secure world.


 

No:

022

Title

Restoring Coasts, Estuaries and Wetlands – Large Scale Science, Big Data and Embracing Technological Advancement

Organizers

Nathan Waltham
James Cook University, Australia

Abstract

The spatial and temporal distribution of human activities in marine areas continues to compromise the utility of estuaries and coastal wetlands as productive flora and fauna habitat. The unplanned and unregulation of coastal urban sprawl in the worlds’ estuaries increasingly contributes to poor water quality, altered freshwater flow, contaminant pollution, loss of habitat, light pollution, invasive species, sedimentation/eutrophication – the list goes on. Although these impacts have been widely studied, less is known about mitigative attempts, nor have strategies been developed and coordinated to deliver system repair and protection outcomes at a large enough scale to truly corroborate to ecosystem improvement. With major advancements in technology and deep learning technology, ecologists are now able to tackle more central research questions, and at scale, in order to deliver more meaningful and impactful solutions for government, industry and community members. This session brings together managers and scientists to share new research directions, and to hear how innovative technology assists in delivering coastal system repair and eco-engineering outcomes in a changing coastal seascape.


 

No:

030

Title

Potentials and Threats of Riverine Habitats

Organizers

Mohammad Jalilur Rahman
WorldFish, Bangladesh

Abstract

Despite the enormous potential of the diverse riverine ecosystems, there are many challenges to keep the good ecosystem health through minimizing the negative impacts of various anthropogenic activities, siltation and climate change. In fact, current conditions of many rivers are pitiable and needs urgent rehabilitation. Some important threats to the rivers and its biodiversity are the massive pollution through dumping of industrial chemicals, sewerage, agricultural pollutants and other solid wastes, especially the plastic wastes and ship breaking wastes. Other important human activities that have remarkable negative impacts on the water flow and biodiversity are the construction of dam, barrage, bridge, water diversion, flood control and irrigation, barrier for fishing, unplanned dredging, sand lifting, river grabbing and navigation.


 

No:

044

Title

Providing Solutions to a Current Environmental Problem Facing our Changing World: Improving Methods and Models Used to Measure and Scale Evapotranspiration (ET) to the Landscape Scale in Urban Regions, Catchments and Wetlands

Organizers

Pamela Nagler1, Hamideh Nouri2, Huade Guan3 and Genxu Wang4
1U.S. Geological Survey, USA
2University of Göttingen, Germany
3Flinders University, Australia
4Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Abstract

We wish to build a sustainable and desirable future by providing solutions to a current environmental problem facing our changing world. Ensuring long-term water sustainability for increasing human populations is a common goal for water resource managers. There have been recent advances in the quantification of evapotranspiration (ET), a major part of the hydrological cycle and whose value is of great importance for the health of humans and the environment. We are interested in methods, measurements and models of ET in catchments, wetlands and urban regions. There have been many recent advances in computing accurate ET for both point and landscape scales. These support hydrological applications and riparian and agricultural water management. Accurate ET calculation depends on the success of quantifying evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration from vegetation; this is challenging for many operational ET algorithms. There is a lack of operational physical-based surface energy and water balance models in high temporal and spatial resolution that incorporates weather variability, precipitation, irrigation, green leaf area, phenology patterns, including senescence, rooting depth, atmosphere and stomatal resistances, surface roughness and moisture. ET measurements are often made on local scales; yet, scaling to regional resolution has been problematic due to spatial and temporal variability. We invite presentations that contribute theoretical and empirical ET model applications and studies that estimate ET using both prognostic and diagnostic approaches from process-based models that rely on the integration of precipitation and soil-vegetation dynamics to a more direct estimation of ET using remote sensing- based data streams.


 

No:

063

Title

Ecosystem Services and Conservation of Urbanised Coasts

Organizers

Joe S Y Lee
Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Abstract

Rapid urbanisation of the coastal zone is exerting unprecedented pressure on ecosystems such as tidal wetlands and estuaries. While the ecological values of these ecosystems are undisputed, their long-term conservation may require novel approaches to counter threats from urban uses. This session will examine the following issues:
- How important are the services offered by tidal wetland and estuarine ecosystems to coastal communities?
- Practical and innovative strategies for securing long-term ecosystem services on urbanised / urbanising coastlines
- Habitat restoration, creation, ecoshorelines and "designer ecosystems"


 

No:

069

Title

Values of Wetlands for Sustainable Environment

Organizers

Safia Ahmed
Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan

Abstract

Wetlands are among the most important and productive ecosystems on earth. Considering the importance of wetlands, a “wetlands industry” has emerged which involved regulators, environmental lawyers, wetland engineers, and wetland consultants engaged in various aspects of wetlands management and conservation. Humans may assign value to wetlands as a result of their location in the landscape, the wide variety of functions they perform, the uniqueness of their plant and animal communities, their aesthetic qualities, as sites for education and scientific research, as locations of historical or archaeological significance or as repositories for water during floods. In recent years, constructed wetlands have been used to augment or, in some instances, replace more conventional wastewater treatment plants. So wetland have their values in water quality improvement by trapping, retaining and processing pollutants acting as “kidneys of the landscape”; and protecting drinking water supplies and treating wastewater.


 

No:

077

Title

Nature-based Coastal Defense: Developing the Knowledge Needed for Wider Implementation

Organizers

Rebecca Morris and Elisabeth Strain
National Centre for Coasts and Climate, The University of Melbourne, Australia

Abstract

Climate change and coastal urbanisation is driving an increased need for investment in coastal protection infrastructure. Engineered structures (e.g., seawalls, breakwaters) are expensive and non-adaptive (i.e., they need to be rebuilt, upgraded and maintained in response to a changing climate). Nature-based coastal defense (i.e., the integration of natural habitats such as coastal vegetation and biogenic reefs; NBCD) has the potential to protect shorelines, provide co-benefits (e.g., biodiversity provision, blue carbon) and to adapt with future changes in climate. However, NBCD is still not widely implemented globally. This is due to there being less certainty around what habitats are effective at providing sustainable coastal defense, where they can be used, and how they should be designed. In addition, we need to understand their cost-effectiveness, and the social license for different coastal adaptation measures. We welcome speakers on any ecological, engineering, economic, or socio-political aspect of NBCD, with the aim build global knowledge and partnerships in this area.


 

No:

085

Title

Coastal Ecological Change: Biocomplexity and Biological Integrity

Organizers

Rebecca Morris and Elisabeth Strain
National Centre for Coasts and Climate, The University of Melbourne, Australia

Abstract

Coastal environment, an interface of land and sea represents the most productive but vulnerable ecozone of the world by accommodating so many sensitive ecologically sensitive but productive ecosystems such as mangroves, corals, estuaries, lagoons, delta, dunes, intertidal zone etc. and has been undergoing multitude of ecological changes (positive, neutral and negative) during the last couples of centuries in different parts of the world mainly because of both direct anthropogenic activities ( habitat destruction, pollution, climate change etc.) or indirect natural processes(geological, atmospheric, hydrological ,biotic interactions, bioinvasion etc.). Different frameworks pertaining to biocomplexity (referring to the complex interactions of organisms with the environments for the cause biodiversity development) and biological integrity (the ability to achieve a balanced integrated and adaptive biological system) to detect these changes and to take sustainable conservative measures.


 

No:

087

Title

River Conservation - A Systematic Approach

Organizers

Ruchi Badola
Wildlife Institute of India, India

Abstract

Conservation of river ecosystems require a comprehensive approach that takes into consideration the physical and ecological characteristics, and resilience of ecosystem functions. As river ecosystems are connected with terrestrial ecosystems, a basin level approach encompassing of ecological aspects such as biodiversity conservation; hydrological aspect of connectivity with the catchments, floodplain wetlands and tributaries; and social aspects such as community-based conservation becomes imperative. Increasing anthropogenic dependence and development pressures necessitates strategic and systematic conservation planning and management of resources, based on scientific ecological knowledge, in consonance with socio-economic goals for strengthened decision and policy making towards conservation of river ecosystems.


 

No:

120

Title

Wetlands as Sustainable Approach for Mitigating Wicked Harmful Algal Blooms Caused by Landscape and Climate Changes

Organizers

William J Mitsch1 and Maciej Zalewski2
1Florida Gulf Coast University, USA
2Lodz University, Poland

Abstract

Harmful algal blooms have increased in rivers, lakes, and coastal waters by an order of magnitude or more in the past two decades. They are the result of both landscape changes due to agriculture and urban development and climate change, particularly in watershed hydrology changes and water temperature increases in the affected waters. Wetlands need to be restored and created, on large scales to mitigate their estimated 80% loss on a world-wide scale due to human caused landscape change. This session will involve presentations by researchers who have successfully designed or used wetlands on large-scales to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus reductions to reduce symptoms of eutrophication downstream. Specific attention will be paid to wetland restoration projects on large scales specifically done for water quality improvement.


 

No:

121

Title

Challenges and Opportunities in Defining Adaptation Pathways in the Face of Global Change

Organizers

Adrienne Grêt-Regamey1, Matthew Colloff2 and Sandra Lavorel3
1ETH Zurich, Switzerland
2Australian National University, Australia
3Université Grenoble Alpes, France

Abstract

Global change is jeopardizing the various goods and services that ecosystems provide to human societies. Be it in coastal, deserts or urban ecosystems, the rate and scale of impacts call for effective coping mechanisms. Adaptation, however, not only requires reactive actions, but a deliberate transformation involving the questioning of values, beliefs, norms, identities and assumptions. While there are many perspectives on what a desirable future should be, focusing on the pathways helps highlighting trade-offs between the services provided at various sequenced decision points. Taking into consideration the mentioned challenges for defining adaptation pathways the following questions arise: (1) Which key characteristics of the socio-ecological systems allow to pave the way for ensuring adaptation options? (2) What are the main path dependencies in the socio-ecological systems limiting future adaptation options? (3) What are the main trade-offs in the services provided by the socio-ecological systems along the pathways? (4) How are the short-term and long-term environmental and socio-ecological changes addressed?
Guided by these questions, the session is dedicated to diagnosing adaptation pathway challenges across socio-ecological systems, from coastal over urban to mountain systems. The focus will be on both challenges resulting from changing the decision context over the pathways to opportunities emerging from learning and co-creating solutions along the pathways. Showing some international practice-oriented examples, we will discuss and synthesize principles in enabling adaptation pathways from the local context to the more strategic regional and national context.


 

 

 

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